Buy your Research paper Online-Amphibians


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Buy your Research paper Online-Amphibians

Answer the following questions using the information provided above.

  1. What problem are amphibians experiencing worldwide? Please explain it as clearly and completely as you can in the space provided (approximately 150 words). Make sure you address broadly what is happening as well as causal factors involved. (max. 2 pts)

 

 

  1. What does the “climate-linked epidemic” hypothesis of Pounds et al. (2006) propose (that is, what is hypothesized to be causing the problem)? Summarize it in 1-2 sentences, using your own words. (max. 1 pt)

 

 

  1. List two distinct lines of evidence used to support the “climate-linked epidemic” hypothesis in your own words. (This is data that corresponds to one of the predictions of the hypothesis.

max. 2 pts)

 

 

  1. What does the “spatio-temporal spread” hypothesis of Lips et al. (2008) propose? Summarize it in 1-2 sentences, using your own words. (max. 1 pt)

 

 

 

  1. List two distinct lines of evidence used to support the “spatio-temporal spread” hypothesis in your own words. (max. 2 pts)

 

 

  1. How are these two hypotheses different in terms of their predictions? Contrast the predictions of each hypothesis. Explain in 2-4 sentences, using your own words. (max. 2 pts)

 

 

 

  1. Please list and explain one strength and one weakness of each hypothesis in the chart below. A weakness is something about the hypothesis (an assumption, way something is measured, piece of data, combination of data, or absence of data, etc.) that makes it less convincing. A strength is something that makes it more convincing. (max. 4 pts)

 

  Weaknesses Strengths
Climate-Linked Epidemic    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SpatioTemporal

Spread

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. If you were Ms. Torres, and you had to briefly describe to your students why the frogs have disappeared in this forest, and what you think is the most likely explanation, what would you say? Write your explanation as if you are talking to high school students. Be sure to synthesize the information available; your explanation should include an informed evaluation of the evidence. Please explain it as clearly and completely as you can in the space provided (~100-150 words). (max. 2 pts)

 

 

 

Finally, read carefully the following information and answer the last two questions.

 

In a new study, Cheng et al. (2011) recently described a new genotyping technique —a way to discover the genotype of the sample— by which amphibian museum specimens can be tested for the presence of chytrid fungus through a simple swab. This DNA-based technique uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)2 to detect the presence of Bd DNA in the skin of specimens, and can be used for specimens collected up to 50 years ago.

  1. Please read carefully and as many times as needed. How would you use this new tool to help understand the causes of enigmatic amphibian declines knowing that many museums have been collecting specimens from Central and South America for decades? Provide a specific example or scenario of where and for what purpose, you could use this technique. (For example, what would you test for and in what populations? What would you expect to find, and what would it mean?). (max. 3 pts)

 

  1. Please read carefully and as many times as needed. How might new evidence from using PCR on specimens from several decades ago strengthen or reject the hypotheses above? Describe how new evidence could be used to produce data to strengthen each hypothesis, and what data that would be. Explain. (max. 6 pts) —-PCR is a molecular technique used to amplify specific fragments of DNA. If the chytrid fungus is present on a frog specimen, chytrid DNA fragments will be amplified with the PCR.

 

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