Lab 8 DNA Coding and Protein Synthesis


Lab 8 DNA Coding and Protein Synthesis

To get your Assignment/Homework solutions;

Simply Click ORDER NOW and enter your paper details. Our support team will review the assignment(s) and assign the right expert whose specialization is same to yours to complete it within your deadline. Our Editor(s) will then review the completed paper (to ensure that it is answered accordingly) before we email you a complete paper

Introduction: Connecting Your Learning As covered in a previous lesson, DNA is an abbreviation for the biological molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is found in the nucleus of cells and it stores genetic information and the code for synthesizing proteins. A DNA molecule is organized into sections called genes. Genes code for specific proteins that are vital to living organisms. Proteins are important because they are the building blocks of cells and, additionally, proteins called enzymes play a key role in catalyzing chemical reactions in living organisms. Proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm of cells by ribosomes. Long strands of DNA along with proteins called histones are tightly wound together to form chromosomes. In order to synthesize a protein, information must be transferred from the DNA in the nucleus of the cell to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell. The process involves two steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process where the code for a protein found on a specific gene located on DNA is written to another nucleic acid molecule called ribonucleic acid (RNA). This process takes place in the nucleus of the cell. The molecule of RNA then leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm where the process of translation takes place. Translation is a process where the code for making a protein (found on a molecule of RNA) is translated into specific amino acids that will comprise apolypeptide (protein). In this lab, students will simulate the process of protein synthesis by transcribing DNA molecules into RNA molecules and then subsequently, translating RNA molecules into amino acids. Students will also extract DNA from an onion. Resources and Assignments Multimedia Resources None Required Assignments Lesson 10 Lab 8 Required Materials From the Lab Kit DNA template cards Universal genetic code reference card Ribosome circle Thermometer Funnel 100 ml graduated cylinder 2 coffee filters Measuring spoon (teaspoon) 2 teaspoons salt Student Provided Pen or pencil Standard printer paper (1 sheet) Scissors Onion 1 small pot 120 ml water 2 tablespoons liquid dish detergent Fork (Needed only if a blender or food processor is not available) Knife Cutting board or other surface for cutting the onion Additional water for heating (3-4 cups tap water) 2 small glass, ceramic, or metal mixing bowls 2 cups ice or access to a freezer 2 clear drinking glasses (12-16 oz) 100 ml Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol), 71% or higher Blender or food processor Tape Optional: (if the student wants to preserve the extracted DNA) Alcohol (100-200 ml) Focusing Your Learning Small clear glass container with a lid Wooden skewer or toothpick Lab Objectives By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: 1. Identify the structure of DNA including the following: nucleotides, base pairing, hydrogen bonds, and the double helix model. 2. Compare and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA. 3. List and describe the steps of DNA replication. 4. List and describe the steps of transcription and translation, and describe where each occurs in the cell. 5. Explain the functions of messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA. 6. Distinguish between codons and anticodons. Background Information DNA and RNA Structure Assessing Your Learning Compose answers to the questions below in Microsoft Word and save the file as a backup copy in the event that a technical problem is encountered while attempting to submit the assignment. Make sure to run a spell check. Copy the answer for the first question from Microsoft Word by simultaneously holding down the Ctrl and A keys to select the text, and then simultaneously holding down the Ctrl and C keys to copy it. Then, click the link on the Lab Preview Page to open up the online submit form for the laboratory. Paste the answer into the online dialog box by inserting the cursor in the box for question one and simultaneously holding down the Ctrl and V keys. The answer should now appear in the box. Repeat this process for each question. Review all work to make sure that all questions have been completely answered and then click on the Submit button at the bottom of the page. 1. How does DNA differ from RNA? (2 points) 2. Where in the cell does each of the following processes take place? (2 points) a. Transcription b. Translation 3. The following is a base sequence on a strand of DNA. When the strand replicates, what is the base sequence on the complementary strand of DNA? (2 points) AATCGCATACCCGGTCAG 4. Transcribe the following DNA molecule into mRNA: TAACCTGGACTACAAATC. (2 points) 5. What is a promoter? (2 points) 6. What is the role of the enzyme DNA polymerase? (2 points) 7. What is the end product of transcription? (2 points) 8. Why would it be impossible to extract DNA from cooked foods? (2 points) 9. Which DNA extraction procedure (warm water versus room temperature water) produced a greater quantity of DNA? Explain why the results turned out the way that they did. (6 points) 10. Provide the amino acid sequence for DNA template cards 1 through 5 (from Procedure 4 in the lab)? (10 points) a. DNA template card # 1: b. DNA template card # 2: c. DNA template card # 3: d. DNA template card # 4: e. DNA template card # 5: 11. What is an exon? (2 points) 12. What three molecules are needed for the process of translation? (3 points) a. b. c. 13. What are the building blocks of proteins called? (2 points) 14. List the three stop codons. (3 points) a. b. c. 15. Provide the amino acid sequence for DNA template cards 6 through 10 (from Procedure 4). (10 points) a. DNA template card # 6: b. DNA template card # 7: c. DNA template card # 8: d. DNA template card # 9: e. DNA template card # 10: 16. Define the following terms: (2 points) a. Point mutation b. Frameshift mutation 17. Name the type of mutation that occurred below. (2 points) Original strand of DNA: CTAGGCCTAACTGCC Replicated strand of DNA: CTAGGCCAAACTGCC 18. Provide the amino acid sequence for DNA template cards 5 and 11 through 14 (from Procedure 4). (10 points) a. DNA template card #5: b. DNA template card # 11: c. DNA template card # 12: d. DNA template card # 13: e. DNA template card # 14: 19. DNA template cards 11 through 14 represent mutations that occurred in template card five. Review the amino acid sequences for cards 5 and 11 through 14 and answer the following: (10 points) a. What type of mutation occurred in cards 11 and 12? b. Did the mutation in card 11 result in a change in the protein synthesized? c. Did the mutation in card 12 result in a change in the protein synthesized? d. What type of mutation occurred in cards 13 and 14? e. Would the mutations that occurred in cards 13 and 14 result in a change in the protein synthesized? 20. A base deletion of base eight (frameshift mutation) occurs in the following nucleotide sequence: CTCAATGAAGGCCTA. (4 points) a. Write the codons for the nucleotide sequence. b. Write the codons for the nucleotide sequence following the base deletion. 21. (Application) How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to protein synthesis be useful to a student employed in a healthcare related profession? (20 points)

 

To get your Assignment/Homework solutions;

Simply Click ORDER NOW and enter your paper details. Our support team will review the assignment(s) and assign the right expert whose specialization is same to yours to complete it within your deadline. Our Editor(s) will then review the completed paper (to ensure that it is answered accordingly) before we email you a complete paper

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: