Category Archives: Public Health

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 Running Head:  10 Essential Services of Public Health

 10 Essential Services of Public Health

[Student Name]

HCA415: Community and Public Health

[Instructor’s Name]

[Date Submitted]

Instructions: Public health services are divided into four major categories and 10 specific services. For each of the four categories and 10 essential services of public health listed below, provide a definition. The definition should be approximately three to four sentences each and be written in your own words. Then, via an internet search, identify a real-life example of each of the 10 essential services. The example may be a program, initiative, or service of a government agency, community service agency, non-profit organization, or community action group. Provide a description and brief discussion of how this example relates the definition of the essential service. Include a link to the website where you found information about each example. You only need to include a definition of each of the three categories of services; you do not need to provide an example of the categories. All information you include on the worksheet must be in your own words. No quotes or copy-pasted material will be accepted. Cite your sources appropriately in APA style as outlined by the Ashford Writing Center.

Four Categories and 10 Essential Services of Public Health Definition

Describe each category and service in your own words. No quotes or copy-pasted material will be accepted. Cite your sources in APA style.


Provide an example of the service in your own words. No quotes or copy-pasted material will be accepted. Cite your sources in APA style.

Category 1: Assessment [Description of category] (Citation, date) N/A
Monitor Health [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Diagnose and Investigate [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Category 2: Policy Development [Description of category] (Citation, date) N/A
Inform, Educate, Empower [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Mobilize Community Partnerships [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Develop Policies [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Category 3: Assurances [Description of category] (Citation, date) N/A
Enforce Laws [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Link to/Provide Care [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Assure Competent Workforce [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Evaluate [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]

Category 4: System Management [Description of category] (Citation, date) N/A
Research [Description of service] (Citation, date) [Description of example, discussion of how example relates to definition] (Citation, date)

[URL of where information about example was located]


(Sources must be cited correctly in APA style according to the Ashford Writing Center. Below are examples of how to cite various types of documents in APA style. Please visit the Ashford Writing Center for more details on using APA style, or visit

Article in journal:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.

Article from and online periodical:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from

Chapter a web document or online book chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from

Nonperiodical web document or report:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://

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PubH 6503, Childhood obesity in African American adolescents 10-14 in mississipi

PubH 6503, Introduction to Public Health Communication & Marketing

Childhood obesity in African American adolescents 10-14 in mississipi

Type of paper:

public health

Format or citation style:

Let’s review what your group will have accomplished in assignment #1. By now, you will have:
• Conducted your situation analysis
• Defined and segmented your target audiences
• Established your high-level public health goal
• Defined your specific behavioral and communication objectives
• Made recommendations for additional research needed
Now you are ready to begin the process of:
• Defining the core messages of your health communication campaign or program
• Determining some vehicles that you could use to communicate these messages
• Developing concepts or rough-drafts of some actual materials that could be pre-tested among
members of your target audiences and also among gatekeepers who are influential in reaching
your target audiences
Review of Assignment #2
You are to write and submit the second component of your group project. Suggested length is 9-10
pages (don’t exceed that length with the main text, but you may choose to include references beyond
the 10 page maximum [double spaced, 1” margins, arial font]). Submit an electronic copy (one per
group) in Microsoft Word format at least 24 hours before the start of your live session during the week
7. This assignment is worth 15 points. Feedback will be sent to the student who submits the
assignment on behalf of their group.
Your paper should be organized into these sections and address these questions and components:
Step #1
Write a communication strategy statement.
The communication strategy statement is a document that provides a snapshot of the most important
information needed by a team of creative services professionals (e.g., art directors, copywriters, web
designers, illustrators, producers of radio or televisions commercials, video producers, etc.) who
might develop your communication campaign materials.
This document serves three important functions:
• It forces you, as the public health communication and marketing specialist in your organization,
to succinctly describe your audience and objectives, among other things
• It gives you something tangible to circulate among your co-workers, bosses, or clients (if you
are working for a social marketing or communication consulting company), and forces them to
come to consensus before the creative process begins
• It is used by the creative services team as the “anchor” against which creative concepts and
materials should be judged (that is, it helps you review the work of the creative team from the
point of the view of the target audience, and not from your own personal point of view)
An outline for a communication strategy statement appears at the end of this document.
Step #2
Develop three key messages for your primary target audience, and a slogan or theme line that
can be used in your campaign or program materials. (If you have more than one primary
target audience, select one of them for this step.)
These three messages should follow from your communication objectives and should be seen as
supporting the achievement in the long term of your behavioral objectives. In other words, they should
be targeted messages, as we have discussed in class and the recorded materials and readings.
Targeted messages aim to change a specific attitude, belief, behavior, etc. related to the goals and
objectives of the campaign. Your messages should be deeply rooted in the behavioral theory you
have chosen to guide your campaign. Please define and discuss your application of theory in this
In developing your messages, be mindful of your target audience. Is health literacy an issue for your
target audience?
Lastly, develop a theme line or tag line that relates to your key messages and could serve as a shorthand
summary of your objectives or messages.
Step #3
Develop a prototype of two health communication materials that you feel will be central to
your group’s communication campaign or program.
You can get ideas for examples of communication materials on pages 64-65 of “Making Health
Communication Programs Work” (the “Pink Book” resource that is provided as a reading for this
• One of these should be some form of advertisement – such as a magazine or newspaper ad, a
series of banner ads for web sites, Facebook or Twitter, the script for a television or radio ad, a
billboard campaign, etc.
• The second material you create should be an informational or educational piece, such as a
brochure, pamphlet, web site pages, etc.
For example, if you plan to develop print advertisements, create a sketch of a prototype ad. Include
rough drawings or downloaded images as placeholders for real images which would be developed
later. Write a headline for this ad and the “body copy” – the content of the ad that contains your key
message or messages. Incorporate your theme line or tag line into this ad prototype. In developing
your informational or educational piece, create a rough prototype of the brochure, pamphlet, web site,
etc., that includes graphics, headlines, and body copy.
In previous classes, students have prepared a wide variety of prototypes for this assignment,
including advertisements for newspapers or magazines, Web pages, brochures, an outline of an
educational video, a kit of information materials, television and radio ads, newsletters, and information
For this section, you will likely want to write a short paragraph or two describing the two materials
(what they are, why you chose these mediums) your group has decided upon. The remainder of this
section will be depicted through your prototypes which can either be included right here in the text
(space allowing) or as an Appendix at the end of the assignment.
Step #4
Write a description of how you would pre-test your each of your communication materials. What type
of market research would you recommend, and why? Would you use quantitative or qualitative
techniques, or both? What is your rationale for your approach? How would you go about recruiting
participants to take part in your market research? How would you measure reactions to your
materials and analyze results of your pre-testing research. (You do NOT have to actually conduct the
pre-testing. Just develop a plan.)
Outline for Your Communication Strategy Statement
Your communication strategy statement should be written according to this format and turned
in with your key messages and prototype materials. This document is meant to be brief
(advertising agencies call it a “Creative Brief”) so use “bullet points” and short sentences.
Program Goal
Target Audience
Behavioral Objective(s)
Communication Objectives(s)
Barriers to Awareness or Action
The Benefit Promise
Supporting Reasons Why
Action(s) the Target Audience Should Take
Planned Executions and Other Special Considerations
Example of a Creative Strategy Statement
Creative Strategy Statement for a Health Communications Campaign to Communicate Results
of the Diabetes Prevention Program
Program Goal:
Contribute to the achievement of the Healthy People 2020 goal for diabetes:
• Through prevention programs, reduce the disease and economic burden of diabetes, and
improve the quality of life for all persons who have or are at risk for diabetes
Target Audiences:
• All adults ages 45 and older who are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, as measured
by one or more of these characteristics: overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25, but especially ≥ 30;
sedentary lifestyle; fasting blood glucose value in the pre-diabetic range)
• All adults ages 45 and older, as above, for a general audience campaign (we’ll focus on this
group for the purposes of the remainder of this strategy document) Other potential segments
for separate campaigns or sub-campaigns include:
• African Americans ages 45 and older at high risk, as defined above
• Hispanic/Latino Americans ages 45 and older at high risk, as defined above
• American Indian/Native Americans ages 45 and older at high risk, as defined above
• Asian Americans ages 45 and older at high risk, as defined above
• Adults ages 60 and older at high risk, as defined above
Behavioral Objectives:
• Among the target audience by the year 2020, increase the percentage (from 10% to 15%) that
reports losing 10-20 pounds within the past two years and keeping it off.
• Among the target audience by the year 2020, increase the percentage (from 20% to 30%) that
reports getting 30 minutes a day of physical activity, such as walking, five days a week.
Communication Objectives:
• Among the target audience by the year 2020, increase the percentage (from 20% to 50%) that
is aware that diabetes can be prevented.
• Among the target audience by the year 2020, increase the percentage (from 5% to 25%) that
is aware that losing just 10-20 pounds and increasing physical activity to 30 minutes a day, five
days a week, can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Barriers to Awareness or Action:
• Not aware of the seriousness of diabetes so not afraid of getting it
• Fatalistic about getting diabetes
• Hard to exercise when overweight
• Thinks that losing weight is an all-or-nothing proposition (that is, you need to go to a “normal”
weight to get a health benefit)
• Doesn’t like to exercise and doesn’t like people who exercise (those “gym bunnies” or “gym
rats” who always seem to be exercising)
• Doesn’t know how to eat better to lose weight
The Benefit Promise:
• If you make relatively small changes to your lifestyle – losing modest amounts of weight and
making modest increases in your level of physical activity – you can prevent diabetes entirely,
or delay it from occurring for many years.
Supporting Reasons Why:
• People just like you who took part in a health study called the Diabetes Prevention Program
were able to prevent or delay diabetes by losing, on average, about 10-20 pounds, and
walking on a daily basis for 30 minutes.
• The changes you need to make to help prevent diabetes are small, and can easily fit into your
daily life.
• The changes you make to help prevent diabetes also will make you feel better – and maybe
even look better, too.
Action the Target Audience Should Take:
Seek more information:
• Visit our Web site
• Call our 800 number
• Ask their doctors at their next office visit
• Straightforward, matter-of-fact
• Consider a light approach
• Avoid fear appeals or negative labeling of the target audience
• Show empathy for what they are going through in their lives
Planned Executions and Other Special Considerations:
A comprehensive public service advertising campaign to include:
• Television and radio ads
• Print ads
• Billboard and Metro cards
• Web banner ads
Collateral materials to be developed include:
• Brochures
• Posters for doctor’s office waiting rooms
• Comprehensive Web site
To ensure readability by a wide audience, written materials should be written at the eighth-grade
reading level to the extent possible.

H100, Introduction to Public Health


H100, Introduction to Public Health

Epidemiology exercise, Spring 2016

 Use the tables and response boxes for answers; the first two pages are background—no responses needed


This assignment is designed to allow you to employ the basic tools of epidemiology, using a real example that has elements which cross public health, child development, exercise and physical activity, and nutrition, as well as other fields.

As we discussed in class, and as you have learned through your readings and online material, epidemiology concerns itself with the “distribution and determinants” of health related matters in populations, with the goal of using the findings to improve health and prevent or cure disease.  Epidemiology is most typically thought of as applying to large geographically defined populations (e.g. a state or country), and dealing with death and disease (e.g. number of people contracting influenza).

The tools of epidemiology, though, can be applied in any setting where there is a) a defined population “at risk” for some event, and b) a count of the number of events that occur in that population in a given time.  For example, it is possible to treat passing H100 as an epidemiologic problem.  The population is everyone in the course, and the event is passing the course.  To calculate prevalence of passing, therefore, you simply make a fraction of those passing divided by those enrolling.  If 340 students of  350 enrolled pass, the prevalence of passing is 97.1% (i.e. 340/350).

In this exercise, you will use real data from the American College Health Association report on  As part of the exercise, you will calculate measures of frequency (e.g. prevalence) and of association (e.g. relative risk).  We will go over ACHA and the NCHA in class, and you will have had an opportunity to participate in the 2014 survey. Before you do the exercise yourself, I suggest you review the class materials on epidemiology: narrated slides, and the text.  For those of you with greater interest in the topic of college student health, the link to ACHA is on the Blackboard site.



Because we will have spent time in class on ACHA/NCHA, this background will be specific to the assignment. Sample surveys are available at the ACHA website, as are results from recent surveys.


We will be using data modified from the 2013 NCHA survey. Below are the characteristics of the 153 institutions participating in that effort. You may to refer to the information below when answering the question about confounding and bias.

In the 2013 survey, 123,078 students participated, with an overall response rate of 34%. Approximately 34% of respondents were male, 66% female. The median age for both men and women was 21, though the mean for both men (23.1) and women (22.7) was older. Full-time students represented 88% of the sample, and 65% characterized themselves as Caucasian/white, with 14% indicating Hispanic ethnicity.

During the following exercise, you will explore whether college students are meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention physical activity guidelines for muscle strengthening activities (e.g. lifting weights or other load-bearing activity). Current guidelines recommend at least 2 days per week of such physical activity for optimum health.


The following activities are designed to be conducted in order—answers from the first section feed into items in the second, and so on.  Sections 1 and 2 ask you to conduct calculations similar to those discussed in class, in narrated slides, and in your text. Section 3 asks you to think about ways to interpret the results, including the possibility that they are misleading, and what you might do with the information.

Section 1. Prevalence

Prevalence is simply the proportion of those in a given population which have the condition of interest at the time of assessment.  For instance, if 23 of 350 H100 class members have colds at our first class meeting, the prevalence (point prevalence, to be technical) is 23/350, or 6.6/100 or 6.6%.  In this section, you will calculate the prevalence of strength training for college men and women, using the data table provided to you below.

NCHA participants were asked the number of days in an average week in which they did strength training exercise. The national recommendation is to engage in such activity at least twice per week. The table below reports the number of college women and college men who engaged in muscle strengthening activity at least two days per week (i.e. two or more days/week), and the number of men and women responding to the item. Using the numbers in the table below, calculate the prevalence of muscle strengthening activity for men, women, and overall, and enter your results in the table below. Prevalence can be reported as either a proportion or a percentage. In either case, you need not report more than three digits (e.g. 0.235 or 23.5%).



Number exercising

≥ 2/week













Total 44,719 118,198  


  1. In your own words, and in no more than a couple of sentences or bullets, provide a summary of the prevalence pattern you see here; in other words, what is the overall prevalence and does it seem to differ for women and men? Don’t worry for now about the interpretation or implications of the patterns you see (i.e. whether there is some causal association between gender and muscle strengthening exercise).


Section 2. Relative risk

Using the methods illustrated in the narrated slides, in class, and in your text, calculate the relative risk below using the prevalence estimates you calculated above (show the fractions you create as well as the relative risk). The prevalence estimates from the table above are your best estimates of absolute risk for each gender category; in this instance, it is the absolute risk of engaging in strengthening exercises at least twice per week. (“Risk” is used here in the epidemiologic sense rather than common usage—“risk” does not necessarily refer only to unpleasant outcomes, but for any outcome; in this case we are dealing with the “risk” of a health-promoting activity.)

  1. Using the prevalence of ≥ 2/week strengthening exercise in women as the “non-exposed” group (i.e. the denominator), calculate the relative risk of ≥ 2/week strengthening exercise for men. So, for the table below, you will calculate one relative risk.  In the center column, provide the fraction you use to calculate relative risk (i.e. the two numbers you use to calculate RR).  In the right column, provide the relative risk that comes from that fraction.
Measure Fraction Relative risk
RR for men    


  1. Using your own words, how do you quantitatively interpret the results? That is, how would you translate the relative risk for someone who didn’t know the term “relative risk”? You must interpret the actual relative risk you found (i.e. as a number), not just comment about how to interpret relative risks generally.


Section 3. Interpretation and action

As our session on epidemiology emphasized, getting a result is only part of conducting an epidemiologic study.  The results must be interpreted correctly to be of use.  One possible interpretation of results is that they are causal—that is, that the predictor (or exposure) causes the outcome (or event).  For instance, you may look at the results on gender and weight bearing exercise and determine that the association is somehow causal (i.e. that gender—in the broadest definition, including social definitions—is really associated with strength training via some causal mechanism). You then have the task of explaining how that could be so—what cause or causes lead to the connection?  There are other reasons that two variables (e.g. gender and reported strength training) might be associated but without one causing the other. A third variable might be leading to engagement in weight bearing exercise, but be associated with gender, for instance.  A variable statistically associated with gender may be leading to strength training frequency, and not gender itself (“confounding”, as we have discussed).  Or, it could be that the students in the survey were either sampled in a way that led to misleading results, or there were problems with the way the survey collected data that led to misleading results (i.e. bias).

Your task in this section is to look at the results, and try to decide whether you think they are causal, that is, do you think that gender (or a component of gender) actually influences whether a student engages in strength training? If you think it is causal, explain how—if not, give a plausible alternative to causation.

  1. How could gender be causally associated with strength training? Explain how, in a way consistent with the results you found. How might the results be the result of confounding or bias (i.e. the result of a third variable or a problem with the way the survey was conducted)? Provide one example; again, be sure your answer is consistent with the data and results you found earlier. If you argue that the sample is biased, you may need to refer to the initial table describing the survey sample.


Epidemiology is an applied science.  Ultimately, the goal of the field is to find results that allow public health organizations (and others) to take action to improve health.  Based on everything you have calculated and reported for this exercise, in the box below briefly (2 bullets or sentences) say 1) whether you would recommend action based on these results, and 2) what that action would be?

  1. Would you take public health action based on these results? If so, what?  If not, what would make you unwilling to take action at this point?  Be sure your responses are consistent with the data and results.


Well done!  This is what epidemiologists, along with other public health, clinical, and other professionals do all the time—take data, try to gain insights into what determines health-related outcomes, and determine whether public health action should be recommended.  If you want to learn more about this specific topic, visit the ACHA website.


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